During the course of 1,800 plus years of the Pre-Qin period the ancestors of the Chinese nation created a brilliant civilization. In the west Zhou period, Confucius, the foremost ideologist of the day, coupled with other scholars, brought about cultural and academic prosperity in China.


The Qin came to power in 221BC as one of the western states that existed during the Warring States Period. The Qin, which was not the most culturally advanced of the Warring States, was the strongest in terms of military.


Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, overthrew jointly the reign of the Qin and then contended for hegemony. A couple of years later, Liu Bang triumphed over Xiang Yu, and founded the mighty Han Dynasty, during which agriculture, crafts and commerce were immensely developed.


The Jin Dynasty (265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. The dynasty was founded by the Sima family.The Western Jin Dynasty lasted from 265 to 316.The Eastern Jin Dynasty lasted from 317 to 420.


From its establishment in 618 to its downfall in 907, the Tang Dynasty is the most prosperous dynasty in Chinese history.During the early period, economic growth and political stability provided a favorable environment for the development of culture, art and foreign relations.


The Song refined many of the developments of the previous centuries. Included in these refinements were not only the Tang ideal of the universal man, who combined the qualities of scholar,painter, and statesman, but also painting, calligraphy, and hard-glazed porcelain.


During the Yuan Dynasty, economic and cultural exchanges were frequent among different nationalities, and the Hui nationality was formed during this period. The Yuan had an extremely vast territory, drawing a basic outline of present China's territory.


In the early Ming,the nation's economy soon recovered and progressed to its highest level. Zhu's achievements made him one of the most outstanding statesmen in Chinese history, along with Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty and Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty.


Throughout the reigns of Emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, the Qing reached its peak. This was known as the Kang Qian Sheng Shi. With a vast territory, the Qing gradually gained stability, which enabled a steady development of economy, culture, industry and commerce.


On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen took the oath of office in Nanjing City and declared the establishment of the Republic of China. During the period, continuous political conflicts and wars resulted in a slow economic and cultural development.